Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
Nashik has produced many well known , eminent personalities in literature, art, social workers, film makers, dramatists, musicians etc. However, the brightest among these pearls is the memorable personality - Vinayak Damodar Savarkar. Each and every Nashikite is extremely proud of him.
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar is known to people as one of the fervent freedom fighters of India. But he was not just a freedom fighter. He was a bold warrior, good orator, prolific writer, a poet, a historian, a philosopher, a social worker, a cautious leader, a bard and staunch supporter of Freedom and much ore. The following article is a glimpse of what we mean by his multifaceted personality. His biography is like a thrilling novel. It inspires readers with patriotism.
hailed from Maharashtra,. Born in Bhagur,
Dist. Nashik on 28th May 1883, he spent his youth in fighting against
British Raj. As an extremely brilliant, outspoken and confident school
boy, he was famous amongst his teachers and friends. In 1898 when
Chaphekar brothers were hanged for assassinating the British Officer
- Mr. Rand, Savarkar was just 15 years old. But Chaphekar’s martyrdom
impressed him and he decided the freedom of the country
as his foremost aim.
matriculation in 1901, he took admission in Fergusson College of Poona.
He was however more interested in India's freedom from British rule.
The young college students in Poona were charged by the speeches
by the patriots and political leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bhopatkar
etc. The news papers in Poona were also actively participating in creating
anti-British atmosphere in the society and appealing
society’s feelings of Nationalism. Savarkar was the uncrowned
leader of the youth in this movement. In 1905 he burnt the imported clothes
as a token of India’s protest to imported clothes. In May 1904, he
established an International Revolution Institute named "Abhinav
Bharat". His instigating patriotic speeches and activities irritated
the British Government. As a result his B.A. degree was withdrawn by the
Government. In June 1906 he left for London to become Barrister. However,
once in London, he united and inflamed the Indian students in England
against British. He believed in use of arms against the
He was the prime inspiration for the Indian students to rise against British rule. The British Government Officers were waiting for some opportunity to arrest him. He was arrested in London on 13 March 1910 on some fabricated offenses. The case against him was to be heard by the court in India. So he was to be sent to India. During his travel in a ship, as the ship neared Marseilles in France, he jumped through a porthole and swam to the port. This was on 8 July 1910. As per the plan, his colleagues were to reach there beforehand. However, they reached late and he was caught by French Police. The French Government denied him asylum.
After the case was decided in India, he was sentenced to 50 years rigorous life imprisonment in Andaman on 24 December 1910. Since 4 July 1911, he was in Andaman Jail in solitude. On 2nd May 921 he was brought to India from Andaman. Since 1921 to 1922, he was in Alipur (Bengal) and Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) Jails. On 6th January 1924, he was released from the jail on two conditions viz. a) He will not actively participate in politics and b) he will stay in Ratnagiri District. He was in house arrest at Ratnagiri.
he spent his life in different fields of social work. He
breathed his last at the age of 83, on Saturday, February
26, 1966. "Prayopveshana" , meaning fast till death, was what he observed
and refused any intake of food. His death was like a
true warrior. Death did not grab him, he approached death with erect
from his childhood he used to like reading. Invariably found in Library,
he used to read the news papers like Kesari, Kal, Dnyanprakash etc. He
read "Short History of the World" in childhood. He studied
History of India from Vedic time. History was his favorite subject.
He had good command over Sanskrit and thoroughly read Sanskrit as
well as English literature. Amongst other books, he was impressed
by the biographies of Mazini, Garibaldi, Napoleon etc. He read Bible, and
Holy Koran, philosophers like Spencer, Mill, Darwin, Huxlay
, Emerson etc. He also studied Economics, Geology etc. He could by
heart half of Ravindranath Tagore’s literature. He had also carefully
studied Lenin and Trotsky.
He is proved to be pioneer in many fields such as -
He was against the influence of Urdu, English or any other languages on Marathi - his mother tongue Hence he professed for use of pure Marathi Language. To replace many conversant words adopted from languages like Urdu, Persian or English, he coined many words and brought them in use. Since Marathi originates from Sanskrit, which is a proliferate language, why should invasion of words from other languages be tolerated, he used to emphasis. The following Marathi words , which we use in day to day language are brought in by Savarkar - Prashala (High school), Aacharya (Principal), Dhani (Malak - Owner), Dinank (Tarikh - date), Upasthita (hajar - present), Nabhowani (radio), Mahapour (mayor), Vishwasta (Trustee) etc.
Realizing the importance and influence of print media, he made appropriate changes in the Devnagari script, so as to ease printing. "Savarkar script" reduced print type faces from 200 to 80.
He was the President of Hindu Mahasabha and toiled for building Hindu Nationalism.
He campaigned for incorporation of Hindus in Indian Military from 30% to 65% during British Raj.pparently this was misunderstood as helping British for fighting the Second World War. However military training was very essential for the revolution, which could be used against British Rule on opportune time. That was the purpose of this campaign. This was appreciated by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose saying that this movement facilitated supply of trained soldiers to his "Swatantra Sena".
his instance, Madam Cama represented India in the International Socialists
Conference with India’s flag. The participants in the conference not only
saluted Indian Flag , but also agreed that they should support
the freedom movement in India. After India’s independence, while deciding
the flag of the country, Savarkar’s suggestion to adopt Dharmachakra on
the Sarnath Pillar (Ashok Stambh) was accepted and implemented.
was a prolific writer and poet. His literature from the age of 11 till
70 can be divided in five parts.
His two very famous poems are Sagara Pran Talamalala and Jayostute.
He was a living "Sthitapradnya" as described in "Bhatwat Geeta" and used to live as per the philosophy of "Bhatwat Geeta".
house in Bhagur , 9 kilometers away from Nashik, is being preserved as
National Monument by the Government of India.
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